Sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP) is a highly functional leavening acid used in a wide range of bakery applications. Recent research into Alzheimer’s disease has seen the legislation on the permitted aluminium content in foodstuffs tighten. As a result SALP will no longer be permitted for use in the majority of bakery products within Europe as of 1 February 2014, as stipulated in the amending “Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the conditions of use and the use levels for aluminium-containing food additives”.

Due to this new legislation, many bakeries and chemical leavening agent manufacturers are seeking alternatives to SALP that will not affect the quality of their products.

With this in mind, Kudos Blends recently launched its new and innovative KUDOS™ SALP Replacer at this year’s Food Ingredients Exhibition in Frankfurt. With the highly restricted use of sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP) coming into effect across Europe in February 2014, Kudos received a huge amount of interest in this pioneering alternative.

SALP is unique in its function; with its specific rate of reaction, which helps to achieve a slow, even rise leading to a very fine crumb structure and resilient crumb. It also provides a very clean taste – important for scones and sponges. In addition to these characteristics, SALP also has a neutralising value of 100, which means it is very easy to use as you can employ a 1:1 ratio of sodium bicarbonate with SALP.

As a consequence of the unique nature of SALP, extensive research has been carried out by Kudos to find a functional alternative that matched both the unique reaction rate and baking characteristics. The very specialist reaction profile means that matching the gas release of SALP cannot be achieved by simply using the common phosphate-based alternatives.

With this in mind, Kudos set about developing a SALP replacer. The key features that had to be considered when developing a match were: rate of reaction, pH, flavour and crumb structure. During research into the KUDOS™ SALP Replacer, Kudos Blends analysed many options to find the most technically viable alternative.

The key characteristics of KUDOS™ SALP Replacer are as follows:

Matches the reaction rate of SALP across a range of temperatures

Gives the same pH as SALP – helping to give a nice white crumb

Imparts resilience and fine, even crumb structure

Flavourless taste profile

Slow acting to give process tolerance on industrial processes

Neutralising value with:

Sodium bicarbonate = 50

Potassium Bicarbonate = 57

To ensure the desired end product characteristics are achieved in baked goods, it is critical that gas is released at the correct stage of the baking process. The timing of the gas release is controlled by the rate of reaction of the acidulant used. There are many different acidulants available, all with different rate of reaction profiles, and it is therefore necessary to measure the rate of reaction in order to be able to select the appropriate acidulant for a given application.

Kudos has two methods of measuring the rate of reaction (ROR) of acidulants. One method looks at the rate of reaction in a batter and the other uses a dough. This enables the company to examine the characteristics of leavening acids in different bakery systems. Both of these methods were developed in-house and are well understood by the company’s team of chemists, who are able to accurately analyse and compare a wide range of acidulants. These machines measure the volume of carbon dioxide that is liberated during the reaction between an acidulant and a bicarbonate source, in a medium that is specific to bakery applications. The use of a thermostatic water bath enables this analysis to be carried out at a range of temperatures, ranging from near 0°C up to the starch gelatinisation point of the flour used.

Kudos’ development of the KUDOS ™ SALP Replacer resulted in a carefully chosen blend of aluminium compliant leavening acids developed to give the same end product characteristics as SALP. It can be used in all bakery products without any of the drawbacks associated with other SALP alternatives. Figure 1 shows a comparison between SALP and KUDOS™ SALP Replacer over a wide range of temperatures, clearly showing that KUDOS™ SALP Replacer is a viable and fully functional alternative to SALP.

In addition, Kudos also offers a KUDOS™ Low Sodium SALP Replacer so as to keep in line with the ongoing changes taking place in the bakery industry regarding sodium reduction.

The similarity to the unique reaction profile of SALP means that products baked with KUDOS™ SALP Replacer have the same desirable end product characteristics; these include good volume, fine resilient crumb and slightly acidic pH. As with SALP, products baked with KUDOS™ SALP Replacer have no after-taste or gritty texture. In conclusion it is clear to see why KUDOS™ SALP Replacer is being promoted as the only technically viable, functional alternative to SALP.

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Figure 1 – A comparison of SALP and KUDOS™ SALP Replacer across a wide range of temperatures.

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Figure 2 – KUDOS™ SALP Replacer in the New Product Innovation Zone at the Food Ingredients Europe exhibition in Frankfurt.

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